Suprascapular neuropathy is a potential source of shoulder pain and functional limitation that can present secondary to various etiologies including entrapment or compression. Cystic lesions arising from a labral or capsular tear can compress the nerve along its course over the scapula. Nerve traction is theorized to arise from chronic overhead athletics or due to a retracted rotator cuff tear. The diagnosis of suprascapular neuropathy is based on a combination of a detailed history, a comprehensive physical examination, imaging, and electrodiagnostic studies. Although the anatomic course and variations in bony constraint are well understood, the role of surgical treatment in cases of suprascapular neuropathy is less clear. Recent reviews on the topic have shed light on the outcomes after the treatment of suprascapular neuropathy because of compression, showing that surgical release can improve return to play in well-indicated patients. The incidence of compressive neuropathy is quite high in the overhead athletic cohort, but most patients do not show clinically relevant deficiencies in function. Surgical release is therefore not routinely recommended unless patients with pain or deficits in strength fail appropriate nonsurgical treatment.