Substantial advancements have been made in the cause, diagnosis, imaging, and treatment options available for patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). We examined the current evidence and highlight the concepts on the frontline of discovery in LDH.

There are a myriad of novel etiologies of LDH detailed in recent literature including inflammatory factors and infectious microbes. In the clinical setting, recent data focuses on improvements in computer tomography as a diagnostic tool and non-traditional injection options including tumor necrosis alpha inhibitors and platelet-rich plasma. Operative treatment outcomes have focused on minimally invasive endoscopic approaches and demonstrated robust 5-year post-operative outcomes. Advances in the molecular etiology of LDH will continue to drive novel treatment options. The role of endoscopic treatment for LDH will continue to evolve. Further research into10-year outcomes will be necessary as this surgical approach continues to gain widespread popularity.