Despite the increasing numbers of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) procedures, the long-term results have been rarely reported. We previously reported early outcomes of a cohort of patients treated with a Grammont-style RTSA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes after a minimum of 10 years, and to document prosthetic survival and complications.
Clinical outcome assessment was based on the absolute and relative Constant scores and the active range of motion. Radiographic evaluations of scapular notching, tuberosity osteolysis, and periprosthetic radiolucent lines were done as well. Complications and revisions were compiled, and a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed.
The original report included the outcomes for 186 patients (191 RTSAs) who had been followed for a mean of 40 months. In the present study, in which the mean duration of follow-up was 150 months, follow-up clinical evaluations were available for 84 patients (87 prostheses) and radiographic assessments were available for 64 patients (67 prostheses). Seventy-seven patients (79 prostheses) had died before the 10-year follow-up, and 17 patients (17 prostheses) had been lost to follow-up. The mean absolute and relative Constant scores (and standard deviations) were 55 ± 16 points and 86 ± 26 points, respectively, with both having decreased significantly compared with the scores at the medium-term follow-up evaluation (at a minimum of 2 years) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.025, respectively). Forty-nine shoulders (73%) exhibited scapular notching. Forty-seven complications (29%) were recorded, with 10 cases (10%) occurring after 2 years. Sixteen (12%) of the original patients underwent revision surgery. The 10-year overall prosthetic survival rate using revision as the end point was 93%.
Despite a high arthroplasty survival rate and good long-term clinical results, RTSA outcomes showed deterioration when compared with medium-term results. The cause of this decrease is probably related to patient aging coupled with bone erosion and/or deltoid impairment over time.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:
Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.