Enchondroma is the most common primary bone tumor of the hand. This benign, cartilaginous tumor often presents as a pathologic fracture. When hand enchondroma is suspected, less common conditions, such as multiple enchondromatosis syndromes and benign and malignant lesions, should be ruled out. Surgical management with curettage is the standard of care for symptomatic lesions. However, controversy surrounds the timing of surgery for pathologic fractures and the use of surgical adjuncts and postcurettage void management. Microscopically distinguishing hand enchondroma from low-grade hand chondrosarcoma is a diagnostic challenge for pathologists, but the primary surgical treatment for both conditions is curettage because the latter has a low metastatic potential. Postoperative complications are typically joint stiffness and soft-tissue[FIGURE DASH]related deformities, whereas recurrence and malignant degeneration of solitary lesions are much less common. Most patients return to full function after surgery.



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