Seventy-seven infections in 1104 open fracture wounds were evaluated to identify those factors that predisposed to infection. Factors could be placed into three categories: (1) increased risk, (2) no effect, and (3) inconclusive. The single most important factor in reducing the infection rate was the early administration of antibiotics that provide antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. In this study, surgical debridement was performed on all open fracture wounds.