For the past 24 years, most developed countries have used the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to report physician services. In the United States, physicians have continued to use the American Medical Association Current Procedural Terminology, Fourth Edition and the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System. The ICD-10-Clinical Modification (CM) has approximately 4.9 times more codes than the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. ICD-10-CM allows for more specific descriptors of a procedure and is broken down by category, etiology, anatomic site, severity, and extension. ICD-10-CM is scheduled to be implemented by Medicare and commercial payers on October 1, 2015. In addition to ICD-10 implementation, physicians have to meet the requirements of the Meaningful Use Electronic Health Record Incentive Program. The Meaningful Use program is designed to promote the use of certified electronic health technology by providing eligible professionals with incentive payments if they meet the defined core and menu objectives of each stage of the program. All core measures must be met; however, providers can choose to meet a preset number of menu measures. Meaningful Use Stage 1 required eligible professionals to meet core and menu objectives that focused on data capture and sharing. Meaningful Use Stage 2 requires eligible professionals to meet core and menu objects that focus on advanced clinical processes for a full year in 2015. Stage 3 has been delayed until 2017, and core and menu measures that will focus on improving outcomes have not yet been defined. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the history of and techniques for the use of ICD-10-CM in clinical practice. Orthopaedic surgeons also should understand the requirements for Meaningful Use Stages 1 and 2, including the core objectives that must be met to achieve satisfactory attestation.