Ankle fractures are common musculoskeletal injuries that occur in a bimodal distribution, with peaks in younger men and older women, the former related to high-energy trauma and the latter to osteopenia and osteoporosis. Although ankle fractures currently account for 9% of fractures, incidence and severity are increasing. This is attributed to the increased life expectancy among older individuals and improved survival of patients with severe foot and ankle trauma.

The first ankle fracture classification, credited to Percival Pott, described three types of ankle fractures based on the number of malleoli involved: unimalleolar, bimalleolar, and trimalleolar. Despite its ease of use and reproducibility, the classification did not effectively guide management, as it failed to differentiate stable from unstable injuries.



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