Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty have been used to treat osteoporotic compression fractures for many years. In 2009, two randomized controlled trials demonstrated limited effectiveness of vertebroplasty over sham treatment; thus, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons published evidence-based guidelines recommending "against vertebroplasty for patients who present with an osteoporotic spinal compression fracture." However, several other trials have since been published that contradict these conclusions. A recent meta-analysis cited strong evidence in favor of cement augmentation in the treatment of symptomatic vertebral compression fractures.