Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases in childhood with a prevalence of 4 in 1,000 children. Anterior uveitis is a well-known threatening comorbid condition of JIA and affects around 10 % of the patients depending on JIA subtype. A large proportion of children with JIA develop uveitis in the first year of disease and 73 to 90 % after 4 years. Uveitis can progress into adulthood and usually occurs as 'white uveitis', while in the JIA related to the enthesitis subtype that is symptomatic. Current studies reinforced the previous observations that early age of JIA onset, oligoarticular subtype and ANA reactivity are the main risk factors for the development of uveitis. Factors associated to worse prognosis are as follows: findings of 1+ or more vitreous cells at presentation and initial visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. The Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) Group took the first step to define outcome measures for uveitis, but it was established for adults. The Multinational Interdisciplinary Working Group for Uveitis in Childhood (MIWGUC) proposed outcome measures for JIA-associated uveitis incorporating the SUN criteria in 2011. The current suggested management recommends to start early a steroid-sparing effective immunomodulatory systemic treatment. Methylprednisolone intravenous pulse therapy, rituximab, tocilizumab and abatacept are promising agents. Because JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially threatening comorbidity, it is important to recognize and treat it early to prevent any visual damage that could impair visual acuity.





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