The current review includes the most up to date literature on the cause, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric flatfeet.

Recent systematic reviews concur that the evidence supporting the use of orthotics in pediatric flexible flatfeet is poor. Multiple studies have recently reported on the results of arthroereisis, yet these are mostly retrospective and do not include a comparative group or long-term follow up. Other options for symptomatic flatfeet may include osteotomies and/or fusions, but similarly high quality comparative studies are lacking.

Pediatric flatfeet range from the painless flexible normal variant of growth, to stiff or painful manifestations of tarsal coalition, collagen abnormalities, neurologic disease, or other underlying condition. Most children with flexible flatfeet do not have symptoms and do not require treatment. In symptomatic children, orthotics, osteotomies, or fusions may be considered. Arthroereisis has gained popularity in Europe, but has not been widely adopted in North America. Children with asymptomatic rigid flatfeet may not require treatment, whereas those with pain or functional deficits may benefit from orthotics, osteotomies, or fusions. A careful history, clinical exam, and selective diagnostic testing can be used to determine the appropriate treatment option for each child.