The range of open and arthroscopic shoulder procedures continues to evolve and expand. Despite advances in instrumentation and technology, complications still exist and neurologic injury remains an inherent part of these procedures. Iatrogenic nerve injuries are among the more commonly cited complications associated with shoulder surgery. Various surgical procedures about the shoulder are known to place the brachial plexus and peripheral motor nerves at risk. Peripheral nerve monitoring has been helpful in identifying specific surgical steps and key anatomic regions that are susceptible to iatrogenic nerve injury.

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