Many tumors metastasise to bone, therefore, pathologic fracture and impending pathologic fractures are common reasons for orthopedic consultation. Having effective treatment strategies is important to avoid complications, and relieve pain and preserve function. Thorough pre-operative evaluation is recommended for medical optimization and to ensure that the lesion is in fact a metastasis and not a primary bone malignancy. For impending fractures, various scoring systems have been proposed to determine the risk of fracture, and therefore the need for prophylactic stabilisation. Lower score lesions can often be treated with radiation, while more problematic lesions may require internal fixation. Intramedullary fixation is generally preferred due to favorable biomechanics. Arthroplasty may be required for lesions with massive bony destruction where internal fixation attempts are likely to fail. Radiation may also be useful postoperatively to minimise construct failure due to tumor progression.

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