Scheuermann kyphosis is a structural hyperkyphosis defined radiographically as anterior wedging of ≥5° of at least three consecutive vertebral bodies. Typically, the disease develops during adolescence but may not present until adulthood. The etiology remains unknown. Indications for management include progressive deformity, pain, cosmesis, neurologic deficit, and cardiopulmonary compromise. Surgical intervention is indicated in patients with persistent pain and unacceptable deformity caused by significant kyphosis. Surgery can be performed through posterior-only, anterior-only, or combined anterior-posterior approaches. Correction should include the entire length of the kyphosis and should not exceed 50% of the original deformity. The most common postoperative complications are wound infection and loss of correction.

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