Peroneal tendon pathology is rare, but is probably underestimated because it is frequently undiagnosed. It should always be in the differential diagnosis of lateral ankle pain. Surgical treatment of peroneal tendinopathy is indicated after failure of conservative measures. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the medium-term clinical results of 17 patients operated for peroneal tendinopathy without tendon subluxation. A series of 17 patients composed of 7 women and 10 men with a mean age of 53.6 ± 4.6 (range 45 to 60) years were reviewed. The mean preoperative Kitaoka score was 46.7 ± 17.1 (range 25 to 69) points. All patients had radiological evaluation, which demonstrated hindfoot varus in 6 of the 17. Surgical interventions comprised synovectomy, debridement, suture-tubularization, fibrous resection, or tenodesis depending on the preoperative findings and also a valgus osteotomy (Dwyer) in 6 cases and ankle ligament reconstruction (modified Blanchet) in 1 case. All patients were reviewed clinically with a mean follow-up of 4.3 ± 3.8 years (range 16 months to 14 years). Average time to return to sport was 8.5 ± 10.4 months (range 3 months to 3 years). The mean time to return to work was 2.5 ± 1.9 (range 0 to 6) months. The mean postoperative Kitaoka score was 90.1 ± 11 (range 64 to 100) points with a statistically significant improvement to the preoperative score (p < .0001). Sixteen patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their treatment (94.1%). Surgical treatment of peroneal tendinopathy after failed conservative treatment leads to significantly improved function. It is a simple treatment to undertake, which gives a good outcome for both the patient and surgeon.