The Bosworth fracture-dislocation is a rare fracture-dislocation of the ankle where the proximal fibular fragment lodges behind the tibia, rendering it irreducible by routine closed manipulations. Clinically the patient's foot is in severe external rotation. This external rotation makes the initial roentgenograms difficult to interpret. Consequently, the diagnosis is often overlooked, resulting in inappropriate treatment and a disastrous outcome. If properly recognized, these injuries can be successfully treated by closed or open techniques with return of near-normal ankle function. The problem is illustrated in a case involving a 40-year-old woman, as related to a review of the literature and discussion of the treatment rationale.