We systematically reviewed published evidence regarding foot compartment syndrome with regards to causes, methods of diagnosis, number of incisions used for fasciotomy, wound closure techniques, complications, and functional outcomes. Publications were collected using PubMed and OVID databases, and were reviewed as above. All were retrospective case series (evidence-based medicine level IV). Four articles with 39 cases of foot compartment syndrome were reviewed in all. The most common cause of foot compartment syndrome was crush injury to the foot. Diagnosis was mostly made through a combination of clinical findings and compartment pressure measurements. Sixty-five percent of cases required split-thickness skin grafts for wound closure after fasciotomy. Neurological deficits were the most common complication (52%). Thirty-nine percent of the patients reported residual pain and stiffness while ten percent could return to work or their pre-injury activity state after fasciotomy.

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