Periprosthetic osteolysis secondary to wear-induced particle generation is a common long-term complication of hip and knee replacement and frequently results in the need for revision surgery. Management of significant bone defects remains a surgical challenge. Surgical intervention must address the wear particle generator (usually, but not always, the bearing surface), the osteolytic defects, and implant-related issues, primarily fixation and alignment. Indications for surgical intervention in the absence of loosening and pain are not well established. In general, patient age and activity level, the location and size of the osteolytic defect, and the clinical record of the implant system will dictate treatment choices.