Osteolysis ranks as the most significant cause of revision surgery in both total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The factors leading to osteolysis in TKA are unique and sometimes preventable. Changes in polyethylene manufacturing and implant design are striving to improve overall wear. In this review, we discuss osteolysis as it relates to TKAs. The etiology, diagnosis, contributing factors, and management are presented. The final section focuses on future improvements in TKA design, which may ultimately decrease the rate of osteolysis.