Athletes are at particular risk of compromise of the neurovascular structures of the shoulder-specifically, neurovascular conditions distal to the brachial plexus. These conditions include thoracic outlet syndrome, axillary artery occlusion, effort thrombosis, suprascapular nerve entrapment, quadrilateral space syndrome, and complex regional pain syndrome. When diagnosed properly and in a timely fashion, function of the limb can be preserved. To accomplish this, the physician must possess a detailed understanding of the various clinical presentations, diagnostic techniques, and treatment options.