The management of aneurysmal bone cyst depends on the age of the patient, the location, extent, aggressiveness and the size of the lesion. In the light of their experience and a review of the literature of 1256 aneurysmal bone cysts, the authors analyzed various treatment modalities. Inactive lesions can heal with biopsy or curettage alone. In active or aggressive lesions, elective treatment usually consists of curettage, whether associated or not with bone grafting and local adjuvants. Aneurysmal bone cyst in young children do not seem more aggressive than in older children. In pelvic locations, the emergence of a few cases of spontaneous healing (even in active or aggressive lesions) encourages the adoption of clinical and radiological supervision for some months after biopsy when possible. In some cases, the localization and extent of the cyst are such that operative treatment is extremely hazardous. Selective arterial embolization has made a considerable contribution towards the therapeutic solution of such cases. For some authors, direct percutaneous Ethibloc injection can be recommended as the first-choice treatment except in spinal lesions. Nevertheless, the complications encountered in some series after percutaneous embolization of aneurysmal bone cyst with Ethibloc should encourage the use of Ethibloc injection not as an initial treatment but as a reliable alternative to surgery.

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