A retrospective study of 53 patients with isolated femur fractures was performed to evaluate blood loss and transfusion incidence. Patients with other long bone fractures, abdominal, chest, mediastinal, and vascular injuries were excluded. Twenty-one patients required transfusion during the initial hospitalization averaging 2.5 units PRBCs. Admission hematocrit, preoperative and total EBL were found to be significant variables in determining transfusion. Fracture patterns, classified as high or low energy, were not found to correlate with pre- or intraoperative blood loss, incidence of transfusion, delay to surgery or duration of hospital stay. The estimated blood loss in the study group averaged 1,276 cc, stressing the significance of long bone fractures in trauma patients. Preoperative hemorrhage determined transfusion need in contrast to intraoperative blood loss.