Pediatric musculoskeletal infections are common disorders that can result in significant disability. Because the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of infections of the bones, joints, and soft tissues have continued to improve over time, it is important for orthopaedic surgeons to have an understanding of the etiology, diagnosis, basic treatment principles, and recent advancements to achieve successful outcomes. Although each infectious process is unique, there are certain treatment principles that apply to all pediatric musculoskeletal infections. These include prevention, a prompt and accurate diagnosis, and timely medical and/or surgical intervention. Continued evaluations are mandatory to assure good long-term outcomes. Because the effects of infection may last beyond the acute episode in pediatric patients, long-term follow-up is needed to assess for late sequelae such as angular deformities and limb-length inequalities.

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