REPAIRING FULL THICKNESS CUFF TEARS.--Despite the sound rationale for repairing full-thickness rotator cuff tears, the procedure may fail to restore cuff integrity, which is indispensable to optimal cuff function. The functional role of each cuff muscle and the factors associated with anatomic failure (particularly those related to the muscles and tendons) provide a basis for rational patient selection and for determination of the best surgical strategy on a case-by-case basis. SHOULDER ARTHROPLASTY IN PATIENTS WITH GLENOHUMERAL JOINT DISEASE.--Total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with glenohumeral joint disease provides better outcomes than humeral hemiarthroplasty. The choice between a semi-constrained total prosthesis and a reverse constrained total prosthesis should be based on the nature of the joint disease (either centered humeral head or normal cuff function or migrated humeral head and abnormal cuff function). At present, only the semi-constrained total prosthesis has been proved effective in the long-term when used in a patient with a centered humeral head and active cuff. This provides additional support for repairing cuff tears whenever possible in patients who are still young.

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