Patellofemoral complications, instability, and tibial polyethylene wear after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) resulting from malrotation of the tibial or femoral components (or both) may be difficult to diagnose based on physical examination and standard knee radiographs. The preoperative assessment of implant rotational alignment is critical in planning treatment because the femoral or tibial component (or both) may need to be revised if malpositioned. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) scan for determining rotational alignment of femoral and tibial components in TKA. TKA components were inserted in human cadaver specimens at neutral and 5 degrees of external or internal rotation. For each position, the amount of rotation, determined from digital photographs, was compared with CT scan. The correlation coefficient between these two values averaged 0.87, which was significant at P < .05. The CT scan protocol described in this study can be applied clinically to patients with patellofemoral complaints to confirm or rule out the presence of component malrotation.