As recent analyses have indicated that low-volume hospitals experience higher rates of complications following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), it remains important to evaluate how area deprivation index (ADI) of hospitals impacts the quantity of TKA performed. Our analysis sought to evaluate how the ADI of orthopedic surgeon's place of service influences TKA utilization.

The Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data Public Use File (MPUP-PUF) was queried to identify claims between 2013 and 2019 associated with Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code 27447 (TKA). The MPUP-PUF file was linked with publicly available ADI information as well as information regarding each provider's practice location. The Mann-Kendall trend test was used to analyze significant differences in TKA volume between ADI quintiles and differences in TKA volume overall between the years 2013 and 2019. An adjusted multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate how ADI, and practice-specific characteristics, influenced TKA utilization volume.

When isolating by ADI quintiles, no significant changes in TKA volume were demonstrated for Quintile 4 (Kendall's τ = 0.524; p = 0.13) and Quintile 5 (Kendall's τ = 0.524; p = 0.13) between 2013 and 2019. However, a significant increase in TKA volume over the study period was observed in Quintile 1 (Kendall's τ = 0.714 p = 0.034), Quintile 2 (Kendall's τ = 0.714 p = 0.034), and Quintile 3 (Kendall's τ = 0.905 p = 0.007). The adjusted multivariable linear regression model demonstrated that each increase in ADI quintile was associated with significantly lower TKA utilization (β-estimate - 1.16; 95% CI - 2.04 to - 0.29; p = 0.009).

Our findings suggest that resource deprivation contributes to disparities in TKA utilization. With the ongoing recognition of how social and neighborhood-level deprivation may influence access to end-stage osteoarthritis care and related perioperative outcomes, the present study serves to encourage continued efforts at ensuring equity in orthopedic care.

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