Updated: 5/8/2016

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Review Topic
  • Syndrome of physical and mental developmental delays secondary to alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  • Epidemiology 
    • incidence
      • 1.9 per 1,000 births
  • Associated conditions
    • medical manifestations
      • growth disturbances (before and after birth)
      • central nervous system dysfunction
      • dysmorphic facies (wide-set eyes, thin philtrum)
    • orthopaedic manifestations
      • joint contractures
      • hip dislocation
      • congenital fusions of cervical spine
      • congenital fusions of upper extremity
      • congenital scoliosis
      • pectus excavatum 
      • myelodysplasia
  • Prognosis
    • outcomes range widely, but most infants show mental disability
  • Symptoms
    • physical and mental disability
    • poor motor coordination
    • classic facial deformities
  • Physical exam
    • short palpebral fissures
    • epicanthal folds
    • thin upper lip with smooth groove
    • developmental delay
    • microcephaly
    • micrognathia
    • decreased muscle tone

  • Other teratogen exposure
  • Intrauterine trauma
  • Cerebral palsy without FAS

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