Updated: 4/5/2016

Heat Illness and Stroke

Topic
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Heat Cramps
  • Definition
    • painful contractions of large muscle groups because of decreased hydration and a decrease of serum sodium and chloride.
    • cramps can also occur secondary to increased water intake leading to dilutional hyponatremia
  • Treatment
    • rapid cooling
    • stretching
    • electrolyte and fluid replacement
Heat Syncope
  • Definition
    • transient loss of consciousness with peripheral vasodilation and decreased cardiac output with normal body temperature.
  • Pathophysiology
    • results from sever orthostatic event secondary to elevated temperatures
  • Treatment
    • fluid replacement
    • lying supine with leg elevation
Heat Exhaustion
  • Definition
    • defined as a core temperature of less than 102.2 degrees F (39 degrees C) and an absence of central nervous system dysfunction.
  • Epidemiology
    • the most common heat-induced condition
  • Pathophysiology
    • hypernatremic heat exhaustion results from inadequate water replacement.
  • Symptoms
    • consist of profuse sweating and nausea/vomiting
  • Treatment
    • table salts
    • IV hydration
    • cooling
Heat Illness
  • Treatment
    • drink fluids
    • low osmolarity solution (<10%)
    • carbs and stimulate GI fluid absorption
  • Monitor weight
  • 5% loss - not able to return to play
  • 7% loss - see physician
Heat Stroke  
  • Introduction
    • a medical emergency with a high death rate that results from failure of the thermoregulatory mechanisms of the body. 
  • Definition  
    • hyperthermia
    • tachycardia/tachypnea
    • central nervous system dysfunction
    • cessation of sweating with hot, dry skin
    • anhidrosis
    • Body temperature above 40.5 degrees Celsius
  • Epidemiology
    • second most common cause of death in football players
  • Treatment
    • rapid reduction in body core temperature
      • lower temp below 39°C (102° F) with
      • ice immersion
      • cooling blanket
      • fanning
      • internal cooling if needed
      • IV hydration
  • Complications
    • heat sensitivity
      • may last 1 year
 

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(SBQ07SM.43) Which of the following conditions are characterized by hyperthermia, central nervous system dysfunction, and loss of thermo-regulatory function? Review Topic

QID: 1428
1

Heat syncope

1%

(4/781)

2

Heat cramps

0%

(3/781)

3

Heat exhaustion

1%

(10/781)

4

Heat stroke

90%

(701/781)

5

Heat shock

8%

(61/781)

ML 1

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