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During a retroperitoneal approach to the L4-5 disk, what structure must be ligated to safely mobilize the common iliac vessels toward the midline from laterally and gain exposure?
External iliac vein
Middle sacral artery
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Figure A demonstrates a cadaveric dissection of a retroperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine. The aorta, L2 vertebral body, and L3 vertebral body are labeled. Which of the following structures labeled 1-5 identifies the genitofemoral nerve?
A surgeon is planning to place an anterior interbody device in the lumbar spine using a retroperitoneal approach. A vertebral body is identified directly posterior to the bifurcation of the aorta. What is the most likely level of this vertebral body?
An MR aortogram is shown in Figure A. What structure is identified by the red arrow in the coronal and axial views?
superior mesenteric artery
inferior mesenteric artery
segmental lumbar artery