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Phases of Throwing


  • There are 5 main phases of throwing
    • wind up (see below)
    • cocking
    • acceleration
    • deceleration
    • follow-through 
  • Biomechanics
    • scapula must work in concert with humerus to maintain glenohumeral stability
    • the entire throwing motion takes approximately 2 seconds
      • with wind up and acceleration phases taking approximately 75% of time (1.5 seconds)
1. Wind Up
  • Description
    • minimal force on the shoulder during first stage
  • Muscle activity
    • rotator cuff muscles are inactive during this phase
2. Cocking
  • Sometimes described as 2 sub-phases
    • early cocking
      • peak muscle activation
        • deltoid
    • late cocking
      • high torque phase with maximal shoulder external rotation
      • peak muscle activation
        • supraspinatus
        • infraspinatus
        • teres minor
  • Associated pathology
    • internal Impingement 
    • GIRD (glenohumeral internal rotation defect) 
3. Acceleration
  • Description
    • rotates ball to release point
  • Muscle activity
    • early muscle activation
      • triceps
    • late muscle activation 
      • pectoralis major
      • latissimus dorsi
      • serratus anterior  
4. Deceleration
  • Description
    • center of gravity moves over plantar foot
  • Muscle activity
    • eccentric contraction of all muscles is required to slow down arm motion
    • highest torque phase
  • Associated pathology
    • recognized as the most harmful phase of throwing
    • associated injuries
      • superior labrum (SLAP lesion) 
      • biceps tendon injury 
      • brachialis injury
      • teres minor injury
5. Follow-through
  • Description
    • phase where body rebalances and stops forward motion
  • Muscle activity
    • muscle activity returns to resting levels
 

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