- shoe modifications, such as extra-depth or extra-wide shoes, generally will improve symptoms.
- taping and manipulative reduction attempts are ineffective
- metatarsal lengthening or amputation may be indicated
- indicated if symptoms persist in the older child
- extensor tenotomy and capsulotomy are not likely to sufficiently correct the deformity
- fusion or metatarsal lengthening result in complications and generally are not indicated.