Nitrous oxide is used as an induction agent during anesthesia. Unfortunately, the nitrous oxide is released by the blood into the bowel and is unable to return back to the blood in similar quantities. This gaseous distension is important during procedures where fluoroscopy of the abdomen is needed, i.e. pelvic and spinal surgery.
The referenced article by Starr et al notes the difficulty of percutaneous pelvic surgery with use of this induction agent and recommends against its use during these procedures. This article also notes that percutaneous reduction and fixation of posterior pelvic ring injuries is safe and has a high level of patient reported satisfaction levels.
Starr AJ, Walter JC, Harris RW, Reinert CM, Jones AL. Percutaneous screw fixation of fractures of the iliac wing and fracture-dislocations of the sacro-iliac joint (OTA Types 61-B2.2 and 61-B2.3, or Young-Burgess "lateral compression type II" pelvic fractures). J Orthop Trauma. 2002 Feb;16(2):116-23.
PMID:11818807 (Link to Abstract)