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Innervation
  • Motor 
    • lateral compartment of leg
      • peroneus longus  
      • peroneus brevis     
  • Sensory  
    • majority of skin on the dorsum of foot, excluding webspace between hallux and second digit (deep peroneal nerve)    
    • anterolateral distal 1/3 of leg
  • Reflex
    • none
Origin
  • CNS origin 
    • terminal branch of the common peroneal nerve
    • nerve roots: L4-S1
Course
  • Bifurcation of the common peroneal nerve
    • begins at the bifurcation of the common peroneal nerve
  • Proximal neck of fibula
    • passes between peroneal muscles and lateral side of extensor digitorum longus
    • gives off motor branches to peroneus longus and brevis
  • Anterolateral distal leg 
    • descends and supplies only sensory innervation
  • Deep crural fascia
    • superficial peroneal nerve pierces deep crural 
  • Terminal branches 
    • medial dorsal cutaneous nerve 
    • intermedial dorsal cutaneous nerve
Injury & Clinical Conditions
  • Superficial peroneal nerve entrapment
    • mechanism
      • ankle sprains and ankle twisting causing stretching of superficial peroneal nerve
      • compression where the nerve exits the deep fascia of the leg
    • presentation
      • pain and paresthesias over dorsum of foot
  • Direct damage
    • mechanism
      • fractures of the proximal fibula
      • perforating injury to lateral leg
    • presentation
      • loss of eversion
        • motor to peroneus longus and brevis injured
      • loss of sensation over most of dorsal foot and anterolateral aspect of distal leg
 

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