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Innervation
  • Motor 
    • leg
      •  tibialis anterior  
      •  extensor digitorum longus  
      •  peroneus tertius  
      •  extensor hallucis longus   
    • foot
      •  lateral terminal branch: extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallucis brevis      
  • Sensory  
    • articular branch to the ankle joint    
    • medial terminal branch: 1st dorsal webspace
  • Reflex
    • none
Origin
  • CNS origin
    • is derived from the common peroneal (fibular) nerve, which is made of the dorsal branches of L4 and L5
Course
  • Bifurcation of the common peroneal nerve
    • between the fibula and upper part of the peroneus longus
  • Interosseous membrane
    • passes deep to extensor digitorum longus along anterior surface of interosseous membrane
  • Crosses anterior tibial artery
    • runs initially lateral to the anterior tibial artery, but crosses over to run on the medial side by the time it reaches the ankle joint
  • Anterior tarsal tunnel
    • deep peroneal nerve passes through the anterior tarsal tunnel
  • Terminal branches
    • lateral terminal branch
    • medial terminal branch
Injury & Clinical Conditions
  • Damage to this nerve results in foot drop 
    • most common isolated mononeuropathy of the lower extremity
    • systemic causes of injury
      • lower motor neuron disease
      • diabetes
      • ischemia
      • inflammatory conditions
    • iatragenic injuries
      • TKA
      • surgical approach
 

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